The Ashtanga Path (8 Limbs of Yoga)


YAMA – external restraints

  • Ahimsa – compassion, kindess, non-violence
  • Satya – truthfulness
  • Asteya – non-stealing
  • Brahmacharya – control of creative force
  • Aparigraha – balanced giving/taking


NIYAMA – internal restraints

  • Saucha – cleanliness
  • Santosha – contentness with what is
  • Tapas – fire, discipline, accepting not causing pain
  • Svadhyaya – self-study
  • Ishvara-pranidhana – devotion to divine


ASANA – poses


PRANAYAMA – breath control


PRATYAHARA – withdrawal of senses, drawing against the grain of the sensory organs


DHARANA – concentration


DHYANA – meditation


SAMADHI – oneness with cosmic spirit


purpose, life-work, duty

The Kleshas (Obstacles on the Yogic Path)


AVIDYA – Ignorance, Separation from True Self

Four types of Avidya:

  • Confusing Permanent for Impermanent
  • Confusing Pure for Impure
  • Confusing Pleasure for Pain
  • Confusing Self with Non-self




RAGA – Attachment


DVESHA – Aversion


ABHINIVESHA – Fear of Impermanence, fear of death

Actions in the hip


FLEXION – decreasing of space between thigh and torso (AMS is flexion)

EXTENSION – increasing of space between thigh and torso (Tadasana and Bhujanghasana are both hip extension poses)


ABDUCTION – moving the leg away from the mid-line (sagittal plane)

ADDUCTION – moving leg across the mid-line (sagittal plane)


INTERNAL ROTATION – rotating the leg in, towards the mid-line (sagittal plane), knee points in

EXTERNAL ROTATION – rotating the leg out, away from the mid-line (sagittal plane), knee points out

Planes of Movement


SAGITTAL – divides body into left and right halves

FRONTAL – divides body into front and back halves

TRANSVERSE – divides body into top and bottom halves


Axis of Movement


X AXIS – the car wheel axis. When you forward fold, you are moving the torso on the X Axis

Y AXIS – the LP/DVD axis. When you turn the head left and right, you’re moving on the Y Axis

Z AXIS – the steering wheel axis. When you hike one hip higher than the other, that’s the Z Axis